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Playing sound effects in XNA

At this moment, we have a fully playable game, thanks to all the functionality we’ve added throughout this series of 2D XNA Tutorials. The overall feeling of a game is always MUCH improved once sound effects are added to it, which is what we’re about to do in this chapter.

We’re going to add three simple sound effects: one for the rocket launch, one for a terrain explosion and another one for a cannon explosion. You can download them by clicking on their names in the previous phrase (links don't work yet, for now use 3 sounds of your choice).

Loading and playing sound effects used to be quite cumbersome in previous XNA versions, and has been much simplified since XNA 4.0, where you can load it much like you would load and use textures.

Therefore, load the 3 files into your Content project as you would do for images. Next, define these 3 variables at the top of you code:

 SoundEffect hitCannon;
 SoundEffect hitTerrain;
 SoundEffect launch;

And load them in your LoadContent method:

 hitCannon = Content.Load("hitcannon");
 hitTerrain = Content.Load("hitterrain");
 launch = Content.Load("launch");

Now, all you need to do, is call the hitCannon.Play() to play the sound!

The first effect should be started whenever the rocket is launched, which is detected in our ProcessKeyboard method. Add this line to the end of that method, inside the if-block that detects whether the rocket should be launched:

 launch.Play();

The other two effects should be started whenever a detection between the rocket and the terrain or a cannon is detected. So go to our CheckCollisions method, and add this line to the if-block that checks for cannon collisions:

 hitCannon.Play();

And this line to the if-block that detects terrain collisions:

 hitTerrain.Play();

That’s it! When you run the code, you should hear some sound effect each time you launch a rocket, and when the rocket hits something.




DirectX Tutorial 21 - Sound in XNA

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    Our code thus far:

     using System;
     using System.Collections.Generic;
     using System.Linq;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Audio;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Content;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.GamerServices;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Input;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Media;
     
     namespace XNATutorial
     {
         public struct PlayerData
         {
             public Vector2 Position;
             public bool IsAlive;
             public Color Color;
             public float Angle;
             public float Power;
         }
     
         public struct ParticleData
         {
             public float BirthTime;
             public float MaxAge;
             public Vector2 OrginalPosition;
             public Vector2 Accelaration;
             public Vector2 Direction;
             public Vector2 Position;
             public float Scaling;
             public Color ModColor;
         }
     
         public class Game1 : Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Game
         {
             GraphicsDeviceManager graphics;
             SpriteBatch spriteBatch;
             GraphicsDevice device;
             Texture2D backgroundTexture;
             Texture2D foregroundTexture;
             Texture2D carriageTexture;
             Texture2D cannonTexture;
             Texture2D rocketTexture;
             Texture2D smokeTexture;
             Texture2D groundTexture;
             Texture2D explosionTexture;
             SpriteFont font;
             SoundEffect hitCannon;
             SoundEffect hitTerrain;
             SoundEffect launch;
             int screenWidth;
             int screenHeight;
             PlayerData[] players;
             int numberOfPlayers = 4;
             float playerScaling;
             int currentPlayer = 0;
             bool rocketFlying = false;
             Vector2 rocketPosition;
             Vector2 rocketDirection;
             float rocketAngle;
             float rocketScaling = 0.1f;

            List<Vector2> smokeList = new List<Vector2> ();        Random randomizer = new Random();
            int[] terrainContour;
            Color[,] rocketColorArray;
            Color[,] foregroundColorArray;
            Color[,] carriageColorArray;
            Color[,] cannonColorArray;

            List<ParticleData> particleList = new List<ParticleData> ();        Color[,] explosionColorArray;

            public Game1()
            {
                graphics = new GraphicsDeviceManager(this);
                Content.RootDirectory = "Content";
            }

            protected override void Initialize()
            {
                graphics.PreferredBackBufferWidth = 500;
                graphics.PreferredBackBufferHeight = 500;
                graphics.IsFullScreen = false;
                graphics.ApplyChanges();
                Window.Title = "Riemer's 2D XNA Tutorial";

                base.Initialize();
            }

            private void SetUpPlayers()
            {
                Color[] playerColors = new Color[10];
                playerColors[0] = Color.Red;
                playerColors[1] = Color.Green;
                playerColors[2] = Color.Blue;
                playerColors[3] = Color.Purple;
                playerColors[4] = Color.Orange;
                playerColors[5] = Color.Indigo;
                playerColors[6] = Color.Yellow;
                playerColors[7] = Color.SaddleBrown;
                playerColors[8] = Color.Tomato;
                playerColors[9] = Color.Turquoise;

                players = new PlayerData[numberOfPlayers];
                for (int i = 0; i < numberOfPlayers; i++)
                {
                    players[i].IsAlive = true;
                    players[i].Color = playerColors[i];
                    players[i].Angle = MathHelper.ToRadians(90);
                    players[i].Power = 100;
                    players[i].Position = new Vector2();
                    players[i].Position.X = screenWidth / (numberOfPlayers + 1) * (i + 1);
                    players[i].Position.Y = terrainContour[(int)players[i].Position.X];
                }
            }

            protected override void LoadContent()
            {
                spriteBatch = new SpriteBatch(GraphicsDevice);
                device = graphics.GraphicsDevice;


                backgroundTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("background");
                carriageTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("carriage");
                cannonTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("cannon");
                rocketTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("rocket");
                smokeTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("smoke");
                groundTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("ground");
                explosionTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("explosion");
                font = Content.Load<SpriteFont> ("myFont");
                 hitCannon = Content.Load("hitcannon");
                 hitTerrain = Content.Load("hitterrain");
                 launch = Content.Load("launch");
     
                 screenWidth = device.PresentationParameters.BackBufferWidth;
                 screenHeight = device.PresentationParameters.BackBufferHeight;
                 playerScaling = 40.0f / (float)carriageTexture.Width;
     
                 GenerateTerrainContour();
                 SetUpPlayers();
                 FlattenTerrainBelowPlayers();
                 CreateForeground();
     
                 rocketColorArray = TextureTo2DArray(rocketTexture);
                 carriageColorArray = TextureTo2DArray(carriageTexture);
                 cannonColorArray = TextureTo2DArray(cannonTexture);
                 explosionColorArray = TextureTo2DArray(explosionTexture);
             }
     
             private void FlattenTerrainBelowPlayers()
             {
                 foreach (PlayerData player in players)
                     if (player.IsAlive)
                         for (int x = 0; x < 40; x++)
                             terrainContour[(int)player.Position.X + x] = terrainContour[(int)player.Position.X];
             }
     
             private void GenerateTerrainContour()
             {
                 terrainContour = new int[screenWidth];
     
                 double rand1 = randomizer.NextDouble() + 1;
                 double rand2 = randomizer.NextDouble() + 2;
                 double rand3 = randomizer.NextDouble() + 3;
     
                 float offset = screenHeight / 2;
                 float peakheight = 100;
                 float flatness = 70;
     
                 for (int x = 0; x < screenWidth; x++)
                 {
                     double height = peakheight / rand1 * Math.Sin((float)x / flatness * rand1 + rand1);
                     height += peakheight / rand2 * Math.Sin((float)x / flatness * rand2 + rand2);
                     height += peakheight / rand3 * Math.Sin((float)x / flatness * rand3 + rand3);
                     height += offset;
                     terrainContour[x] = (int)height;
                 }
             }
     
             private void CreateForeground()
             {
                 Color[,] groundColors = TextureTo2DArray(groundTexture);
                 Color[] foregroundColors = new Color[screenWidth * screenHeight];
     
                 for (int x = 0; x < screenWidth; x++)
                 {
                     for (int y = 0; y < screenHeight; y++)
                     {
                         if (y > terrainContour[x])
                             foregroundColors[x + y * screenWidth] = groundColors[x % groundTexture.Width, y % groundTexture.Height];
                         else
                             foregroundColors[x + y * screenWidth] = Color.Transparent;
                     }
                 }
     
                 foregroundTexture = new Texture2D(device, screenWidth, screenHeight, false, SurfaceFormat.Color);
                 foregroundTexture.SetData(foregroundColors);
     
                 foregroundColorArray = TextureTo2DArray(foregroundTexture);
             }
     
             private Color[,] TextureTo2DArray(Texture2D texture)
             {
                 Color[] colors1D = new Color[texture.Width * texture.Height];
                 texture.GetData(colors1D);
     
                 Color[,] colors2D = new Color[texture.Width, texture.Height];
                 for (int x = 0; x < texture.Width; x++)
                     for (int y = 0; y < texture.Height; y++)
                         colors2D[x, y] = colors1D[x + y * texture.Width];
     
                 return colors2D;
             }
     
             protected override void UnloadContent()
             {
             }
     
             protected override void Update(GameTime gameTime)
             {
                 if (GamePad.GetState(PlayerIndex.One).Buttons.Back == ButtonState.Pressed)
                     this.Exit();
     
                 ProcessKeyboard();
                 UpdateRocket();
     
                 if (rocketFlying)
                 {
                     UpdateRocket();
                     CheckCollisions(gameTime);
                 }
     
                 if (particleList.Count > 0)
                     UpdateParticles(gameTime);
     
                 base.Update(gameTime);
             }
     
             private void AddCrater(Color[,] tex, Matrix mat)
             {
                 int width = tex.GetLength(0);
                 int height = tex.GetLength(1);
     
                 for (int x = 0; x < width; x++)
                 {
                     for (int y = 0; y < height; y++)
                     {
                         if (tex[x, y].R > 10)
                         {
                             Vector2 imagePos = new Vector2(x, y);
                             Vector2 screenPos = Vector2.Transform(imagePos, mat);
     
                             int screenX = (int)screenPos.X;
                             int screenY = (int)screenPos.Y;
     
                             if ((screenX) > 0 && (screenX < screenWidth))
                                 if (terrainContour[screenX] < screenY)
                                     terrainContour[screenX] = screenY;
                         }
                     }
                 }
             }
     
             private void UpdateParticles(GameTime gameTime)
             {
                 float now = (float)gameTime.TotalGameTime.TotalMilliseconds;
                 for (int i = particleList.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)
                 {
                     ParticleData particle = particleList[i];
                     float timeAlive = now - particle.BirthTime;
     
                     if (timeAlive > particle.MaxAge)
                     {
                         particleList.RemoveAt(i);
                     }
                     else
                     {
                         float relAge = timeAlive / particle.MaxAge;
                         particle.Position = 0.5f * particle.Accelaration * relAge * relAge + particle.Direction * relAge + particle.OrginalPosition;
     
                         float invAge = 1.0f - relAge;
                         particle.ModColor = new Color(new Vector4(invAge, invAge, invAge, invAge));
     
                         Vector2 positionFromCenter = particle.Position - particle.OrginalPosition;
                         float distance = positionFromCenter.Length();
                         particle.Scaling = (50.0f + distance) / 200.0f;
     
                         particleList[i] = particle;
                     }
                 }
             }
     
             private void AddExplosion(Vector2 explosionPos, int numberOfParticles, float size, float maxAge, GameTime gameTime)
             {            
                 for (int i = 0; i < numberOfParticles; i++)
                     AddExplosionParticle(explosionPos, size, maxAge, gameTime);
     
                 float rotation = (float)randomizer.Next(10);
                 Matrix mat = Matrix.CreateTranslation(-explosionTexture.Width / 2, -explosionTexture.Height / 2, 0) * Matrix.CreateRotationZ(rotation) * Matrix.CreateScale(size / (float)explosionTexture.Width * 2.0f) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(explosionPos.X, explosionPos.Y, 0);
                 AddCrater(explosionColorArray, mat);
     
                 for (int i = 0; i < players.Length; i++)
                     players[i].Position.Y = terrainContour[(int)players[i].Position.X];
                 FlattenTerrainBelowPlayers();
                 CreateForeground();
             }
     
             private void AddExplosionParticle(Vector2 explosionPos, float explosionSize, float maxAge, GameTime gameTime)
             {
                 ParticleData particle = new ParticleData();
     
                 particle.OrginalPosition = explosionPos;
                 particle.Position = particle.OrginalPosition;
     
                 particle.BirthTime = (float)gameTime.TotalGameTime.TotalMilliseconds;
                 particle.MaxAge = maxAge;
                 particle.Scaling = 0.25f;
                 particle.ModColor = Color.White;
     
                 float particleDistance = (float)randomizer.NextDouble() * explosionSize;
                 Vector2 displacement = new Vector2(particleDistance, 0);
                 float angle = MathHelper.ToRadians(randomizer.Next(360));
                 displacement = Vector2.Transform(displacement, Matrix.CreateRotationZ(angle));
     
                 particle.Direction = displacement * 2.0f;
                 particle.Accelaration = -particle.Direction;            
     
                 particleList.Add(particle);
             }
     
             private void UpdateRocket()
             {
                 if (rocketFlying)
                 {
                     Vector2 gravity = new Vector2(0, 1);
                     rocketDirection += gravity / 10.0f;
                     rocketPosition += rocketDirection;
                     rocketAngle = (float)Math.Atan2(rocketDirection.X, -rocketDirection.Y);
     
                     for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
                     {
                         Vector2 smokePos = rocketPosition;
                         smokePos.X += randomizer.Next(10) - 5;
                         smokePos.Y += randomizer.Next(10) - 5;
                         smokeList.Add(smokePos);
                     }
                 }
             }
     
             private void ProcessKeyboard()
             {
                 KeyboardState keybState = Keyboard.GetState();
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Left))
                     players[currentPlayer].Angle -= 0.01f;
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Right))
                     players[currentPlayer].Angle += 0.01f;
     
                 if (players[currentPlayer].Angle > MathHelper.PiOver2)
                     players[currentPlayer].Angle = -MathHelper.PiOver2;
                 if (players[currentPlayer].Angle < -MathHelper.PiOver2)
                     players[currentPlayer].Angle = MathHelper.PiOver2;
     
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Down))
                     players[currentPlayer].Power -= 1;
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Up))
                     players[currentPlayer].Power += 1;
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.PageDown))
                     players[currentPlayer].Power -= 20;
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.PageUp))
                     players[currentPlayer].Power += 20;
     
                 if (players[currentPlayer].Power > 1000)
                     players[currentPlayer].Power = 1000;
                 if (players[currentPlayer].Power < 0)
                     players[currentPlayer].Power = 0;
     
                 if (keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Enter) || keybState.IsKeyDown(Keys.Space))
                 {
                     rocketFlying = true;
                     launch.Play();
     
                     rocketPosition = players[currentPlayer].Position;
                     rocketPosition.X += 20;
                     rocketPosition.Y -= 10;
                     rocketAngle = players[currentPlayer].Angle;
                     Vector2 up = new Vector2(0, -1);
                     Matrix rotMatrix = Matrix.CreateRotationZ(rocketAngle);
                     rocketDirection = Vector2.Transform(up, rotMatrix);
                     rocketDirection *= players[currentPlayer].Power / 50.0f;
                 }
             }
     
             private Vector2 TexturesCollide(Color[,] tex1, Matrix mat1, Color[,] tex2, Matrix mat2)
             {
                 Matrix mat1to2 = mat1 * Matrix.Invert(mat2);
                 int width1 = tex1.GetLength(0);
                 int height1 = tex1.GetLength(1);
                 int width2 = tex2.GetLength(0);
                 int height2 = tex2.GetLength(1);
     
                 for (int x1 = 0; x1 < width1; x1++)
                 {
                     for (int y1 = 0; y1 < height1; y1++)
                     {
                         Vector2 pos1 = new Vector2(x1, y1);
                         Vector2 pos2 = Vector2.Transform(pos1, mat1to2);
     
                         int x2 = (int)pos2.X;
                         int y2 = (int)pos2.Y;
                         if ((x2 >= 0) && (x2 < width2))
                         {
                             if ((y2 >= 0) && (y2 < height2))
                             {
                                 if (tex1[x1, y1].A > 0)
                                 {
                                     if (tex2[x2, y2].A > 0)
                                     {
                                         Vector2 screenPos = Vector2.Transform(pos1, mat1);
                                         return screenPos;
                                     }
                                 }
                             }
                         }
                     }
                 }
     
                 return new Vector2(-1, -1);
             }
     
             private Vector2 CheckTerrainCollision()
             {
                 Matrix rocketMat = Matrix.CreateTranslation(-42, -240, 0) * Matrix.CreateRotationZ(rocketAngle) * Matrix.CreateScale(rocketScaling) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(rocketPosition.X, rocketPosition.Y, 0);
                 Matrix terrainMat = Matrix.Identity;
                 Vector2 terrainCollisionPoint = TexturesCollide(rocketColorArray, rocketMat, foregroundColorArray, terrainMat);
                 return terrainCollisionPoint;
             }
     
             private Vector2 CheckPlayersCollision()
             {
                 Matrix rocketMat = Matrix.CreateTranslation(-42, -240, 0) * Matrix.CreateRotationZ(rocketAngle) * Matrix.CreateScale(rocketScaling) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(rocketPosition.X, rocketPosition.Y, 0);
                 for (int i = 0; i < numberOfPlayers; i++)
                 {
                     PlayerData player = players[i];
                     if (player.IsAlive)
                     {
                         if (i != currentPlayer)
                         {
                             int xPos = (int)player.Position.X;
                             int yPos = (int)player.Position.Y;
     
                             Matrix carriageMat = Matrix.CreateTranslation(0, -carriageTexture.Height, 0) * Matrix.CreateScale(playerScaling) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(xPos, yPos, 0);
                             Vector2 carriageCollisionPoint = TexturesCollide(carriageColorArray, carriageMat, rocketColorArray, rocketMat);
     
                             if (carriageCollisionPoint.X > -1)
                             {
                                 players[i].IsAlive = false;
                                 return carriageCollisionPoint;
                             }
     
                             Matrix cannonMat = Matrix.CreateTranslation(-11, -50, 0) * Matrix.CreateRotationZ(player.Angle) * Matrix.CreateScale(playerScaling) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(xPos + 20, yPos - 10, 0);
                             Vector2 cannonCollisionPoint = TexturesCollide(cannonColorArray, cannonMat, rocketColorArray, rocketMat);
                             if (cannonCollisionPoint.X > -1)
                             {
                                 players[i].IsAlive = false;
                                 return cannonCollisionPoint;
                             }
                         }
                     }
                 }
                 return new Vector2(-1, -1);
             }
     
             private bool CheckOutOfScreen()
             {
                 bool rocketOutOfScreen = rocketPosition.Y > screenHeight;
                 rocketOutOfScreen |= rocketPosition.X < 0;
                 rocketOutOfScreen |= rocketPosition.X > screenWidth;
     
                 return rocketOutOfScreen;
             }
     
             private void CheckCollisions(GameTime gameTime)
             {
                 Vector2 terrainCollisionPoint = CheckTerrainCollision();
                 Vector2 playerCollisionPoint = CheckPlayersCollision();
                 bool rocketOutOfScreen = CheckOutOfScreen();
     
                 if (playerCollisionPoint.X > -1)
                 {
                     rocketFlying = false;

                    smokeList = new List<Vector2> ();                AddExplosion(playerCollisionPoint, 10, 80.0f, 2000.0f, gameTime);

                     hitCannon.Play();
     
                     NextPlayer();
                 }
     
                 if (terrainCollisionPoint.X > -1)
                 {
                     rocketFlying = false;

                    smokeList = new List<Vector2> ();                AddExplosion(terrainCollisionPoint, 4, 30.0f, 1000.0f, gameTime);

                     hitTerrain.Play();
     
                     NextPlayer();
                 }
     
                 if (rocketOutOfScreen)
                 {
                     rocketFlying = false;

                    smokeList = new List<Vector2> ();
                    NextPlayer();
                }
            }

            private void NextPlayer()
            {
                currentPlayer = currentPlayer + 1;
                currentPlayer = currentPlayer % numberOfPlayers;
                while (!players[currentPlayer].IsAlive)
                    currentPlayer = ++currentPlayer % numberOfPlayers;
            }

            protected override void Draw(GameTime gameTime)
            {
                GraphicsDevice.Clear(Color.CornflowerBlue);

                spriteBatch.Begin();
                DrawScenery();
                DrawPlayers();
                DrawText();
                DrawRocket();
                DrawSmoke();            
                spriteBatch.End();

                spriteBatch.Begin(SpriteSortMode.Deferred, BlendState.Additive);
                DrawExplosion();
                spriteBatch.End();            

                base.Draw(gameTime);
            }

            private void DrawScenery()
            {
                Rectangle screenRectangle = new Rectangle(0, 0, screenWidth, screenHeight);
                spriteBatch.Draw(backgroundTexture, screenRectangle, Color.White);
                spriteBatch.Draw(foregroundTexture, screenRectangle, Color.White);
            }

            private void DrawPlayers()
            {
                foreach (PlayerData player in players)
                {
                    if (player.IsAlive)
                    {
                        int xPos = (int)player.Position.X;
                        int yPos = (int)player.Position.Y;
                        Vector2 cannonOrigin = new Vector2(11, 50);

                        spriteBatch.Draw(cannonTexture, new Vector2(xPos + 20, yPos - 10), null, player.Color, player.Angle, cannonOrigin, playerScaling, SpriteEffects.None, 1);
                        spriteBatch.Draw(carriageTexture, player.Position, null, player.Color, 0, new Vector2(0, carriageTexture.Height), playerScaling, SpriteEffects.None, 0);
                    }
                }
            }

            private void DrawText()
            {
                PlayerData player = players[currentPlayer];
                int currentAngle = (int)MathHelper.ToDegrees(player.Angle);
                spriteBatch.DrawString(font, "Cannon angle: " + currentAngle.ToString(), new Vector2(20, 20), player.Color);
                spriteBatch.DrawString(font, "Cannon power: " + player.Power.ToString(), new Vector2(20, 45), player.Color);
            }

            private void DrawRocket()
            {
                if (rocketFlying)
                    spriteBatch.Draw(rocketTexture, rocketPosition, null, players[currentPlayer].Color, rocketAngle, new Vector2(42, 240), 0.1f, SpriteEffects.None, 1);
            }

            private void DrawSmoke()
            {
                foreach (Vector2 smokePos in smokeList)
                    spriteBatch.Draw(smokeTexture, smokePos, null, Color.White, 0, new Vector2(40, 35), 0.2f, SpriteEffects.None, 1);
            }

            private void DrawExplosion()
            {
                for (int i = 0; i < particleList.Count; i++)
                {
                    ParticleData particle = particleList[i];
                    spriteBatch.Draw(explosionTexture, particle.Position, null, particle.ModColor, i, new Vector2(256, 256), particle.Scaling, SpriteEffects.None, 1);
                }
            }
        }
    }




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    ©2003 - 2011 Riemer Grootjans
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    Microsoft MVP Award



    2007 - 2011 MVP Award
    DirectX - XNA

    Contents

    News
    Home
    Forum
    XNA 2.0 Recipes Book (8)
    XNA 3.0 Recipes Book (8)
    Downloads
    Extra Reading (3)
    Matrices: geometrical
    Matrix Mathematics
    Homogenous matrices
    Community Projects (1)
    Tutorials (160)
    XNA 4.0 using C# (89)
    2D Series: Shooters (22)
    Starting a project
    Drawing fullscreen images
    Positioning images
    SpriteBatch.Draw()
    Rotation
    Keyboard input
    Writing text
    Angle to Direction
    Direction to Angle
    Smoke trail
    Manual texture creation
    Random terrain
    Texture to Colors
    Coll Detection Overview
    Coll Detection Matrices
    Putting CD into practice
    Particles
    Additive alpha blending
    Particle engine
    Adding craters
    Sound in XNA
    Resolution independency
    3D Series 1: Terrain (13)
    3D Series 2: Flightsim (14)
    3D Series 3: HLSL (18)
    3D Series 4: Adv. terrain (19)
    Short Tuts (3)
    DirectX using C# (54)
    DirectX using C++ (15)
    DirectX using VB (2)
    -- Expand all --


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