XNA for C#
DirectX 9 for C#
DirectX 9 for C++
DirectX 9 for VB
Forum
   
My XNA Book
      
       Go to section on this site

Additional info


Latest Forum posts

 Account settings
  Posted by: Anonymous
  When: 07/05/2014 at 09:48:39

 forced subtitle
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 07/05/2014 at 06:00:48

 convert DVD into PMS
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 07/05/2014 at 05:55:25

 DVD to Digital Copy easily
  Posted by: VIKIVannessa
  When: 05/05/2014 at 06:52:29

 DVD on Xbox 360/Xbox One Console
  Posted by: VIKIVannessa
  When: 05/05/2014 at 06:51:47

 Extract .Srt Subtitles
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 04/05/2014 at 03:54:38

 Encode Movie collection
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 04/05/2014 at 03:52:41

 Convert DVD to WMV
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 29/04/2014 at 05:53:50

 rip DVDs into digital files
  Posted by: Applefly
  When: 29/04/2014 at 05:51:20

 iTunes movies/music to Kindle Fire
  Posted by: ciciyu80
  When: 29/04/2014 at 05:10:20


Ads

Adding lighting to our city

This will be a pretty short chapter, as we’ve already explored the basics about lighting in the first Series.

As a first type of lighting, we’re simply going to use a directional light, much as we’ve used in Series 1. All vertices of the objects in our scene already contain normal data: we’ve added it explicitly to the vertices of our 3D city, and the .x file we loaded the Model from already contained normal info. So all we have to do is define the direction of the light, and explain our techniques they need to take lighting into account!

Start by defining the direction of the light by adding this variable to the top of your code:

 Vector3 lightDirection = new Vector3(3, -2, 5);

As explained in Series 1, we need to make sure the total length of the direction of the light is equal to 1. We can do this by normalizing the direction, so put this line in the Initialize method:

 lightDirection.Normalize();

Now we have defined the direction of the light, go to our DrawCity and DrawModel methods. Add these lines to the effect configuration of the DrawCity method:

 effect.Parameters["xEnableLighting"].SetValue(true);
 effect.Parameters["xLightDirection"].SetValue(lightDirection);

And these line to the DrawModel method:

 currentEffect.Parameters["xEnableLighting"].SetValue(true);
 currentEffect.Parameters["xLightDirection"].SetValue(lightDirection);

Now run this code. You should see that some sides of our buildings are more lit than others. However, the sides that are on the opposite side of the light do not receive any light, and are therefore completely black! This is not what we want, so add a bit of ambient lighting to all pixels of our city in the DrawCity method:

 effect.Parameters["xAmbient"].SetValue(0.5f);

And in our DrawModel method:

 currentEffect.Parameters["xAmbient"].SetValue(0.5f);

When you run this code, you should see that there are no more black sides on our buildings. Most sides are still pretty dark, but this is only because we’re looking at the shadowed side of our city. You should already see some sides at the left side of our city that are being lit by our sunlight; they should appear brighter.




DirectX Tutorial 6 - Ambient and diffuse

If you appreciate the amount of time I spend creating and updating
these pages, feel free to donate -- any amount is welcome !



Click here to go to the forum on this chapter!



It is entirely possible to achieve better-looking lighting effects by experiencing with other types of lights. I didn’t include this in the effects file, because in the 3rd series you’ll learn how to do this yourself.

You can try these exercises to practice what you've learned:
  • Change the intensity of the ambient lighting
  • Change the direction of the sunlight
  • Adjust the position of the camera to get a feeling of the impact of a directional light on your city.
    The code:

     using System;
     using System.Collections.Generic;
     using System.Linq;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Audio;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Content;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.GamerServices;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Input;
     using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Media;
     
     namespace Series3D2
     {
         public class Game1 : Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Game
         {
             GraphicsDeviceManager graphics;
             SpriteBatch spriteBatch;
             GraphicsDevice device;
             Effect effect;
             Texture2D sceneryTexture;
             Model xwingModel;
             VertexBuffer cityVertexBuffer;
     
             int[,] floorPlan;
             int[] buildingHeights = new int[] { 0, 2, 2, 6, 5, 4 };
             Vector3 lightDirection = new Vector3(3, -2, 5);
     
             Matrix viewMatrix;
             Matrix projectionMatrix;
     
             public Game1()
             {
                 graphics = new GraphicsDeviceManager(this);
                 Content.RootDirectory = "Content";
             }
     
             protected override void Initialize()
             {
                 graphics.PreferredBackBufferWidth = 500;
                 graphics.PreferredBackBufferHeight = 500;
                 graphics.IsFullScreen = false;
                 graphics.ApplyChanges();
                 Window.Title = "Riemer's XNA Tutorials -- 3D Series 2";
     
                 lightDirection.Normalize();
     
                 base.Initialize();
             }
     
             protected override void LoadContent()
             {
                 spriteBatch = new SpriteBatch(GraphicsDevice);
                 
                 device = graphics.GraphicsDevice;

                effect = Content.Load<Effect> ("effects");
                sceneryTexture = Content.Load<Texture2D> ("texturemap");            xwingModel = LoadModel("xwing");

                SetUpCamera();
                LoadFloorPlan();
                SetUpVertices();
            }

            private void SetUpCamera()
            {
                viewMatrix = Matrix.CreateLookAt(new Vector3(20, 13, -5), new Vector3(8, 0, -7), new Vector3(0, 1, 0));
                projectionMatrix = Matrix.CreatePerspectiveFieldOfView(MathHelper.PiOver4, device.Viewport.AspectRatio, 0.2f, 500.0f);
            }

            private void LoadFloorPlan()
            {
                floorPlan = new int[,]
                {
                    {1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1},
                    {1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1},
                    {1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1},
                    {1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1},
                };

                Random random = new Random();
                int differentBuildings = buildingHeights.Length - 1;
                for (int x = 0; x < floorPlan.GetLength(0); x++)
                    for (int y = 0; y < floorPlan.GetLength(1); y++)
                        if (floorPlan[x, y] == 1)
                            floorPlan[x, y] = random.Next(differentBuildings) + 1;
            }

            private void SetUpVertices()
            {
                int differentBuildings = buildingHeights.Length - 1;
                float imagesInTexture = 1 + differentBuildings * 2;

                int cityWidth = floorPlan.GetLength(0);
                int cityLength = floorPlan.GetLength(1);


                List<VertexPositionNormalTexture> verticesList = new List<VertexPositionNormalTexture> ();
                for (int x = 0; x < cityWidth; x++)
                {
                    for (int z = 0; z < cityLength; z++)
                    {
                        int currentbuilding = floorPlan[x, z];

                        //floor or ceiling
                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2(currentbuilding * 2 / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 + 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 + 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                        verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 1, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 + 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                        if (currentbuilding != 0)
                        {
                            //front wall
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, 0, -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(0, 0, -1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));

                            //back wall
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, 0, -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));

                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z), new Vector3(0, 0, 1), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                            //left wall
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, 0, -z), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, 0, -z - 1), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));

                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x, 0, -z), new Vector3(-1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                            //right wall
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z - 1), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 1)));

                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z - 1), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2 - 1) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, 0, -z), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 1)));
                            verticesList.Add(new VertexPositionNormalTexture(new Vector3(x + 1, buildingHeights[currentbuilding], -z), new Vector3(1, 0, 0), new Vector2((currentbuilding * 2) / imagesInTexture, 0)));
                        }
                    }
                }

                cityVertexBuffer = new VertexBuffer(device, VertexPositionNormalTexture.VertexDeclaration, verticesList.Count, BufferUsage.WriteOnly);

                cityVertexBuffer.SetData<VertexPositionNormalTexture> (verticesList.ToArray());        }

            private Model LoadModel(string assetName)
            {

                Model newModel = Content.Load<Model> (assetName);            foreach (ModelMesh mesh in newModel.Meshes)
                    foreach (ModelMeshPart meshPart in mesh.MeshParts)
                        meshPart.Effect = effect.Clone();
                return newModel;
            }

            protected override void UnloadContent()
            {
            }

            protected override void Update(GameTime gameTime)
            {
                if (GamePad.GetState(PlayerIndex.One).Buttons.Back == ButtonState.Pressed)
                    this.Exit();

                base.Update(gameTime);
            }

            protected override void Draw(GameTime gameTime)
            {
                device.Clear(ClearOptions.Target | ClearOptions.DepthBuffer, Color.DarkSlateBlue, 1.0f, 0);

                DrawCity();
                DrawModel();

                base.Draw(gameTime);
            }

            private void DrawCity()
            {
                effect.CurrentTechnique = effect.Techniques["Textured"];
                effect.Parameters["xWorld"].SetValue(Matrix.Identity);
                effect.Parameters["xView"].SetValue(viewMatrix);
                effect.Parameters["xProjection"].SetValue(projectionMatrix);
                effect.Parameters["xTexture"].SetValue(sceneryTexture);

                 effect.Parameters["xEnableLighting"].SetValue(true);
                 effect.Parameters["xLightDirection"].SetValue(lightDirection);
                 effect.Parameters["xAmbient"].SetValue(0.5f);
     
                 foreach (EffectPass pass in effect.CurrentTechnique.Passes)
                 {
                     pass.Apply();
                     device.SetVertexBuffer(cityVertexBuffer);
                     device.DrawPrimitives(PrimitiveType.TriangleList, 0, cityVertexBuffer.VertexCount/3);
                 }
             }
     
             private void DrawModel()
             {
                 Matrix worldMatrix = Matrix.CreateScale(0.0005f, 0.0005f, 0.0005f) * Matrix.CreateRotationY(MathHelper.Pi) * Matrix.CreateTranslation(new Vector3(19, 12, -5));
     
                 Matrix[] xwingTransforms = new Matrix[xwingModel.Bones.Count];
                 xwingModel.CopyAbsoluteBoneTransformsTo(xwingTransforms);
                 foreach (ModelMesh mesh in xwingModel.Meshes)
                 {
                     foreach (Effect currentEffect in mesh.Effects)
                     {
                         currentEffect.CurrentTechnique = currentEffect.Techniques["Colored"];
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xWorld"].SetValue(xwingTransforms[mesh.ParentBone.Index] * worldMatrix);
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xView"].SetValue(viewMatrix);
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xProjection"].SetValue(projectionMatrix);
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xEnableLighting"].SetValue(true);
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xLightDirection"].SetValue(lightDirection);
                         currentEffect.Parameters["xAmbient"].SetValue(0.5f);
                     }
                     mesh.Draw();
                 }
             }
         }
     }
     
     


    Google
     
    Webwww.riemers.net


    If you appreciate the amount of time I spend creating and updating
    these pages, feel free to donate -- any amount is welcome !



    - Website design & XNA + DirectX code : Riemer Grootjans -
    ©2003 - 2011 Riemer Grootjans
  • Translations

    This site in English
    This site in Korean
    This site in Czech

    Microsoft MVP Award



    2007 - 2011 MVP Award
    DirectX - XNA

    Contents

    News
    Home
    Forum
    XNA 2.0 Recipes Book (8)
    XNA 3.0 Recipes Book (8)
    Downloads
    Extra Reading (3)
    Matrices: geometrical
    Matrix Mathematics
    Homogenous matrices
    Community Projects (1)
    Tutorials (160)
    XNA 4.0 using C# (89)
    2D Series: Shooters (22)
    3D Series 1: Terrain (13)
    3D Series 2: Flightsim (14)
    Starting point
    Textures
    Loading the floorplan
    Creating the 3D city
    Loading a Model
    Ambient and diffuse
    Quaternion camera
    Flight kinematics
    Collision detection
    Adding targets
    Point sprites
    Alpha blending
    Skybox
    Camera delay
    3D Series 3: HLSL (18)
    3D Series 4: Adv. terrain (19)
    Short Tuts (3)
    DirectX using C# (54)
    DirectX using C++ (15)
    DirectX using VB (2)
    -- Expand all --


    Thank you!

    Support this site --
    any amount is welcome !

    Stay up-to-date

    I don't have the time to keep a News section, so stay informed about the updates by clicking on this RSS file!