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Rotate your terrain using the keyboard

Using DirectX, it is very easy to read your keyboard. Simply add a reference to Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput by selecting Project -> Add Reference. Next, add the following line to your using block:

 using Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput;

However, the keyboard is also called the Device. So, everywhere you used Device to point to your graphical adapter, you should replace it with Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D.Device, 2 times in your whole code. Also, the DeviceType should be replaced by Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D.DeviceType. Try running your application now, it should give the same result without any errors.
Now you can make a connection to your keyboard the same way you connected to your graphical adapter. First you should create a new variable in your class :

 private Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput.Device keyb;

Then, create a method InitializeKeyboard :

 public void InitializeKeyboard()
 {
     keyb = new Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput.Device(SystemGuid.Keyboard);
     keyb.SetCooperativeLevel(this, CooperativeLevelFlags.Background | CooperativeLevelFlags.NonExclusive);
     keyb.Acquire();
 }

The first line allocates the system's default keyboard to your variable keyb. Then you set some flags that adds default keyboard behavior to keyb. For example, if your window loses focus, your keyboard won't be attached to it any longer. Don't forget to acquire your keyboard and to call this method from your Main method:

 our_directx_form.InitializeKeyboard();

Next we create a method to read your keyboard:

 private void ReadKeyboard()
 {
     KeyboardState keys = keyb.GetCurrentKeyboardState();
     if (keys[Key.Delete])
     {
         angle+=0.03f;
     }
     if (keys[Key.Next])
     {
         angle-=0.03f;
     }
 }

Here you put the keyboard state in a variable 'keys'. With this you can easily read out the currently pressed keys! Call the ReadKeyboard method at the end of your OnPaint method, hereby replacing our old 'angle += 0.05f;' line !
Now the rotation itself: add a rotation after your translation :

 device.Transform.World = Matrix.Translation(-HEIGHT/2, -WIDTH/2, 0)*Matrix.RotationZ(angle);

Et voila! When you run the code, you'll see the terrain rotating as you press the Delete and PageDown buttons!




DirectX Tutorial 9 - DirectInput

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Click here to go to the forum on this chapter!

Or click on one of the topics on this chapter to go there:
  • Getting 3D Mouse input
          Hello, I am trying to get information from a 3D mo...
  • Rotation on MouseMove event
           Hi, How to do rotation on MouseMove event?...
  • Rotations with input
          I wish to create a matrix that gets the degrees of...
  • Better way for input
          Hey Riemers, I was going through this tutorial ...
  • Mouse Input
          Hello, I want to use a mouse in C# (DirectX not...
  • how to rotate camera?
          hey, my circumstances require the camera to rot...
  • No input when window is not focussed
          Hi there. I have a small problem with DirectInput,...
  • DirectInput
          I have just started to include Keyboard input usin...



     The final code for our rotating terrain:
    using System;
    using System.Drawing;
    using System.Collections;
    using System.ComponentModel;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    using System.Data;
    using Microsoft.DirectX;
    using Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D;
    using System.IO;
    using Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput;

    namespace DirectX_Tutorial
    {
        public class WinForm : System.Windows.Forms.Form
        {
            private int WIDTH = 64;
            private int HEIGHT = 64;

             private Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D.Device device;
             private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null;
             private float angle = 0f;
             private CustomVertex.PositionColored[] vertices;
             private int[,] heightData;
             private int[] indices;
             private IndexBuffer ib;
             private VertexBuffer vb;
             private Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput.Device keyb;
     
             public WinForm()
             {
                 InitializeComponent();
                 this.SetStyle(ControlStyles.AllPaintingInWmPaint | ControlStyles.Opaque, true);
             }
     
             public void InitializeDevice()
             {
                 PresentParameters presentParams = new PresentParameters();
                 presentParams.Windowed = true;
                 presentParams.SwapEffect = SwapEffect.Discard;
                 device = new Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D.Device(0, Microsoft.DirectX.Direct3D.DeviceType.Hardware, this, CreateFlags.SoftwareVertexProcessing, presentParams);
                 device.RenderState.FillMode = FillMode.WireFrame;
                 device.RenderState.CullMode = Cull.None;
             }
     
             public void InitializeKeyboard()
             {
                 keyb = new Microsoft.DirectX.DirectInput.Device(SystemGuid.Keyboard);
                 keyb.SetCooperativeLevel(this, CooperativeLevelFlags.Background | CooperativeLevelFlags.NonExclusive);
                 keyb.Acquire();
             }
     
             private void CameraPositioning()
             {
                 device.Transform.Projection = Matrix.PerspectiveFovLH((float)Math.PI/4, this.Width/this.Height, 1f, 150f);
                 device.Transform.View = Matrix.LookAtLH(new Vector3(0,-40,50), new Vector3(0,-5,0), new Vector3(0,1,0));
                 device.RenderState.Lighting = false;
                 device.RenderState.CullMode = Cull.None;
             }
     
             private void VertexDeclaration()
             {
                 vb = new VertexBuffer(typeof(CustomVertex.PositionColored), WIDTH*HEIGHT, device, Usage.Dynamic | Usage.WriteOnly, CustomVertex.PositionColored.Format, Pool.Default);
                 vertices = new CustomVertex.PositionColored[WIDTH*HEIGHT];

                for (int x=0;x< WIDTH;x++)            {

                    for (int y=0; y< HEIGHT;y++)                {
                        vertices[x+y*WIDTH].Position = new Vector3(x, y, heightData[x,y]);
                        vertices[x+y*WIDTH].Color = Color.White.ToArgb();
                    }
                }

                vb.SetData(vertices, 0 ,LockFlags.None);
            }

            private void IndicesDeclaration()
            {
                ib = new IndexBuffer(typeof(int), (WIDTH-1)*(HEIGHT-1)*6, device, Usage.WriteOnly, Pool.Default);
                indices = new int[(WIDTH-1)*(HEIGHT-1)*6];

                for (int x=0;x< WIDTH-1;x++)            {

                    for (int y=0; y< HEIGHT-1;y++)                {
                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6] = (x+1)+(y+1)*WIDTH;
                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6+1] = (x+1)+y*WIDTH;
                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6+2] = x+y*WIDTH;

                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6+3] = (x+1)+(y+1)*WIDTH;
                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6+4] = x+y*WIDTH;
                        indices[(x+y*(WIDTH-1))*6+5] = x+(y+1)*WIDTH;
                    }
                }
                ib.SetData(indices, 0, LockFlags.None);
            }

            protected override void OnPaint(System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
            {
                device.Clear(ClearFlags.Target, Color.Black , 1.0f, 0);

                device.BeginScene();
                device.VertexFormat = CustomVertex.PositionColored.Format;
                device.SetStreamSource(0, vb, 0);
                device.Indices = ib;

                 device.Transform.World = Matrix.Translation(-HEIGHT/2, -WIDTH/2, 0)*Matrix.RotationZ(angle) ;
                 device.DrawIndexedPrimitives(PrimitiveType.TriangleList, 0, 0, WIDTH*HEIGHT, 0, indices.Length/3);
                 device.EndScene();
     
                 device.Present();
     
                 this.Invalidate();
     
                 ReadKeyboard();
             angle+=0.05f;
     }
     
             private void ReadKeyboard()
             {
                 KeyboardState keys = keyb.GetCurrentKeyboardState();
                 if (keys[Key.Delete])
                 {
                     angle+=0.03f;
                 }
                 if (keys[Key.Next])
                 {
                     angle-=0.03f;
                 }
             }
     
             private void LoadHeightData()
             {
                 heightData = new int[WIDTH,HEIGHT];
     
                 FileStream fs = new FileStream("heightdata.raw",FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read);
                 BinaryReader r = new BinaryReader(fs);

                for (int i = 0;i< HEIGHT;i++)            {

                    for (int y=0; y< WIDTH; y++)                {
                        int height =(int)(r.ReadByte()/50);
                        heightData[WIDTH-1-y,HEIGHT-1-i] = height;
                    }
                }
                r.Close();
            }

            protected override void Dispose (bool disposing)
            {
                if (disposing)
                {
                    if (components != null)
                    {
                        components.Dispose();
                    }
                }
                base.Dispose(disposing);
            }

            private void InitializeComponent()
            {
                this.components = new System.ComponentModel.Container();
                this.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(500,500);
                this.Text = "DirectX Tutorial";
            }

            static void Main()
            {
                using (WinForm our_directx_form = new WinForm())
                {
                    our_directx_form.LoadHeightData();
                    our_directx_form.InitializeDevice();
                    our_directx_form.CameraPositioning();
                    our_directx_form.VertexDeclaration();
                    our_directx_form.IndicesDeclaration();

                     our_directx_form.InitializeKeyboard();
                     our_directx_form.Show();
                     Application.Run(our_directx_form);
                 }
             }
         }
     }
     


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    DirectX - XNA

    Contents

    News
    Home
    Forum
    XNA 2.0 Recipes Book (8)
    XNA 3.0 Recipes Book (8)
    Downloads
    Extra Reading (3)
    Matrices: geometrical
    Matrix Mathematics
    Homogenous matrices
    Community Projects (1)
    Tutorials (160)
    XNA 4.0 using C# (89)
    DirectX using C# (54)
    Series 1:Terrain (14)
    Opening a window
    Linking to the Device
    Drawing a triangle
    Camera
    Rotation - Translation
    Indices
    Terrain creation
    Terrain from file
    DirectInput
    Importing bmp files
    Colored vertices
    DirectX Light basics
    Mesh creation
    Mesh lighting
    Series 2: Flightsim (19)
    Series 3: HLSL (19)
    Short Tuts (2)
    DirectX using C++ (15)
    DirectX using VB (2)
    -- Expand all --


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