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Experimenting with Lights in DirectX 

My thanks to Richard Sharpe for porting this chapter to C++!


Even when using colors and a Z buffer, your terrain seems to miss some depth detail when you turn on the Solid FillMode. By adding some lights, it will look much better. This chapter we will see the impact of a light on 2 simple triangles, so we can have a better understanding of how lights work in DirectX. We will be using the code from the Rotation & Translation chapter, so reload that code now. Start by letting DirectX know we will be using lights, by finding the line where you turn off lights and replacing it by this line:

 p_dx_Device->SetRenderState(D3DRS_LIGHTING,true);

Next you can simply start defining your lights. They start at index 0, and we’ll only be defining one. I like to split up each part of my program into functions so you know what each part is doing so add this function above your InitializeDevice function

 void Lights(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device)
 {
      D3DLIGHT9 light;
 
      ZeroMemory(&light, sizeof(light));
      light.Type = D3DLIGHT_DIRECTIONAL;
      light.Diffuse.r = 1.0f;
      light.Diffuse.g = 1.0f;
      light.Diffuse.b = 1.0f;
      light.Diffuse.a = 1.0f;
      light.Direction.x = 0.8f;
      light.Direction.y = 0.0f;
      light.Direction.z = -1.0f;
 
      p_dx_Device->SetLight(0, &light);
      p_dx_Device->LightEnable(0, TRUE);
     
      return;
 }

As an example, I used the simplest case, a directional light. Imagine this as the sunlight: the light will travel in one particular direction. There are a few more types of light, I'll discuss them later on. The diffuse color is simply the color of the light. Of course you need to define the direction your light shines, and enable it. It is possible that your video card doesn't support lights, later I'll show you how to check on that. Now try running this code.
Very nice, your screen has gone black again. Why's that? To perform its calculations, DirectX needs another input: the 'normal' in every vertex. Consider next figure:



you have a light source a), and you shine it on the shown 3 surfaces, how is DirectX supposed to know that surface 1 should be lit more intensely than surface 3? (Actually, this could have been programmed by hard, but soon you'll see why it's not) If you look at the thin red lines in figure b), you'll notice that THEY are a nice indication of how much light you would want to be reflected (and thus seen) on every surface. So how can we calculate the length of these lines? Actually, DirectX does the job for us. All we have to do is give the blue arrow perpendicular (with an angle of 90 degrees, the thin blue lines) to every surface and DirectX does the rest (a simple cosine projection) for us! Because we know every surface consists of triangles, we can define these perpendicular directions together with our vertices, simply by using the D3DVECTOR normal; object in your OURCUSTOMVERTEX struct so change it now so it looks like this:

 struct OURCUSTOMVERTEX
 {
     float x,y,z;
     D3DVECTOR normal;
     DWORD color;
 };

You also need to reflect this change in your DrawScene function:

 p_dx_Device->SetFVF(D3DFVF_XYZ|D3DFVF_NORMAL|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE);

you also need to change the statement in you FillVertices function to

 if (FAILED(p_dx_Device->CreateVertexBuffer(3*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX), 0, D3DFVF_XYZ|D3DFVF_NORMAL|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &p_dx_VertexBuffer, NULL)))

We could start defining these arrows. But first, have a look at the next picture, where the arrows above represent the direction of the light and the color bar below the drawing represents the color of every pixel along our surface:



If we simply define the perpendicular vectors, it is easy to see there will be an 'edge' in the lighting (see the bar directly above the a)). This is because the right surface receives (and thus also reflects) 'more' of the light then the left surface. So it will be easy to see the surface is made of separate triangles. However, if we place in the shared top vertex a 'normal' as shown in figure b), DirectX automatically interpolates the lighting in every point of our surface! This will give a much smoother effect, as you can see in the bar above the b). This vector is of course half of the sum of the 2 top vectors of a).
To demonstrate this example, reset the camera position:

 void SetUpCamera(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device)
  {
      D3DXVECTOR3 m_EyePos(0, -40, 100);
      D3DXVECTOR3 m_TargetPos(0, 50, 0);
      D3DXVECTOR3 m_UpVector(0, 1, 0);
      D3DXMATRIXA16 m_View;
      D3DXMatrixLookAtLH(&m_View, &m_EyePos, &m_TargetPos, &m_UpVector);
      p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_VIEW, &m_View);
 
      D3DXMATRIX m_Projection;
      D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH(&m_Projection, D3DX_PI/4, 500/500, 1, 200);
      p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_PROJECTION, &m_Projection);
 }

Notice how the direction of the light corresponds with the one in the previous example: positive x coordinate means 'to the left' and negative z coordinate means 'downward'. Then change your VertexDeclaration method like this:

 OURCUSTOMVERTEX cv_Vertices[6];
 LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 p_dx_VertexBuffer;
 
 cv_Vertices[0].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.x = 1;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[1].x = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].z = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.x = 1;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[2].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].y = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.x = 1;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[3].x = -50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].z = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.x = -1;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.z = 1;
     
 cv_Vertices[4].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.x = -1;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[5].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].y = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.x = -1;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.z = 1;

This defines the 2 surfaces of the picture above. By adding a Z (other than 0), the triangles are now 3D. You can notice that I’ve defined the normal vectors perpendicular, as to reflect example a) of the image above. Don't forget to change the lines further down that say

 3*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX):

to

 6*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX)

to reflect the increase in the number of vertices.

All there's left to do is change your DrawScene method so this will be your new method:

 void DrawScene(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device, LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 p_dx_VertexBuffer)
  {
      flt_Angle += (float)0.05;
 
 
      p_dx_Device->Clear(0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(72,61,139), 1.0f, 0);
      p_dx_Device->BeginScene();
 
      D3DXMATRIX m_Translation;
      D3DXMatrixTranslation(&m_Translation,-5,0,0);
 
      D3DXMATRIX m_World;
      p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_WORLD,&m_Translation );
 
      p_dx_Device->SetStreamSource(0, p_dx_VertexBuffer, 0, sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX));
      p_dx_Device->SetFVF(D3DFVF_XYZ|D3DFVF_NORMAL|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE);
      p_dx_Device->DrawPrimitive(D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 2);
 
      p_dx_Device->EndScene();
      p_dx_Device->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 }

Now run this code and you'll see what I mean with 'edged lighting': the light shines brightly on the right panel and the left panel is darker. You can see clearly the difference between the two triangles! Now it's time to combine the vectors on the edge from (-1,0,1) and (1,0,1) to (-1+1,0,1+1)/2 = (0,0,1):

 cv_Vertices[0].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[0].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.x = 0;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[0].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[1].x = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].z = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[1].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.x = 1;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[1].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[2].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].y = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[2].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.x = 0;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[2].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[3].x = -50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].z = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[3].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.x = -1;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[3].normal.z = 1;
     
 cv_Vertices[4].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].y = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[4].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.x = 0;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[4].normal.z = 1;
 
 cv_Vertices[5].x = 0.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].y = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].z = 50.0f;
 cv_Vertices[5].color = 0xff3333FF;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.x = 0;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.y = 0;
 cv_Vertices[5].normal.z = 1;

When you run this code, you'll see that the reflection is nicely distributed from the bright right panel to the darker left tip. It's not difficult to imagine that this effect will give a much nicer effect on a large number of triangles, such as our terrain.




DirectX Tutorial 15 - DirectX Light basics

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Click here to go to the forum on this chapter!

Or click on one of the topics on this chapter to go there:
  • HLSL Lighting troubles
          Inspired by the HLSL tutorial, I have started codi...
  • Mesh Creation
          Does anyone know how to create a mesh in c++ using...


    Also, you can see that since the middle vertices use the SAME normal, we could again combine the 2x2 shared vertices to 2x1 vertices using an index buffer. Notice however, that in the case you really WANT to create an edge, you need to specify the 2 separate normal vectors.

    Your code:


    #include<windows.h>
    #include<d3d9.h>
    #include<d3dx9.h>
    struct OURCUSTOMVERTEX
    {
        float x,y,z;
        D3DVECTOR normal;
        DWORD color;
    };

    int int_AppRunning = 1;

    float flt_Angle = 0;

    LRESULT CALLBACK OurWindowProcedure(HWND han_Wind,UINT uint_Message,WPARAM parameter1,LPARAM parameter2)
    {
         switch(uint_Message)
         {
             case WM_KEYDOWN:
             {
                 int_AppRunning = 0;
                 break;
            }
             break;
        }

         return DefWindowProc(han_Wind,uint_Message,parameter1,parameter2);
    }

    HWND NewWindow(LPCTSTR str_Title,int int_XPos, int int_YPos, int int_Width, int int_Height)
    {
         WNDCLASSEX wnd_Structure;

         wnd_Structure.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
         wnd_Structure.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
         wnd_Structure.lpfnWndProc = OurWindowProcedure;
         wnd_Structure.cbClsExtra = 0;
         wnd_Structure.cbWndExtra = 0;
         wnd_Structure.hInstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL);
         wnd_Structure.hIcon = NULL;
         wnd_Structure.hCursor = NULL;
         wnd_Structure.hbrBackground = GetSysColorBrush(COLOR_BTNFACE);
         wnd_Structure.lpszMenuName = NULL;
         wnd_Structure.lpszClassName = "WindowClassName";
         wnd_Structure.hIconSm = LoadIcon(NULL,IDI_APPLICATION);

         RegisterClassEx(&wnd_Structure);

         return CreateWindowEx(WS_EX_CONTROLPARENT, "WindowClassName", str_Title, WS_OVERLAPPED | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | WS_MINIMIZEBOX | WS_VISIBLE, int_XPos, int_YPos, int_Width, int_Height, NULL, NULL, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);
    }

    void Lights(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device)
    {
         D3DLIGHT9 light;

         ZeroMemory(&light, sizeof(light));
         light.Type = D3DLIGHT_DIRECTIONAL;
         light.Diffuse.r = 1.0f;
         light.Diffuse.g = 1.0f;
         light.Diffuse.b = 1.0f;
         light.Diffuse.a = 1.0f;
         light.Direction.x = 0.8f;
         light.Direction.y = 0.0f;
         light.Direction.z = -1.0f;

         p_dx_Device->SetLight(0, &light);
         p_dx_Device->LightEnable(0, TRUE);
        
         return;
    }

    LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 InitializeDevice(HWND han_WindowToBindTo)
    {
         LPDIRECT3D9 p_dx_Object;
         LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device;

         p_dx_Object = Direct3DCreate9(D3D_SDK_VERSION);
         if (p_dx_Object == NULL)
         {
             MessageBox(han_WindowToBindTo,"DirectX Runtime library not installed!","InitializeDevice()",MB_OK);
        }

         D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS dx_PresParams;
         ZeroMemory( &dx_PresParams, sizeof(dx_PresParams) );
         dx_PresParams.Windowed = TRUE;
         dx_PresParams.SwapEffect = D3DSWAPEFFECT_DISCARD;
         dx_PresParams.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_UNKNOWN;

         if (FAILED(p_dx_Object->CreateDevice(D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_HAL, han_WindowToBindTo,
             D3DCREATE_HARDWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING, &dx_PresParams, &p_dx_Device)))
         {
             if (FAILED(p_dx_Object->CreateDevice(D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_REF, han_WindowToBindTo,
                 D3DCREATE_SOFTWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING, &dx_PresParams, &p_dx_Device)))
             {
                 MessageBox(han_WindowToBindTo,"Failed to create even the reference device!","InitializeDevice()",MB_OK);
            }
        }
        
         Lights(p_dx_Device);
         p_dx_Device->SetRenderState(D3DRS_CULLMODE, D3DCULL_NONE);
         p_dx_Device->SetRenderState(D3DRS_LIGHTING,true);
         p_dx_Device->SetRenderState(D3DRS_AMBIENT, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(150, 150, 150));

         return p_dx_Device;
    }

    void DrawScene(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device, LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 p_dx_VertexBuffer)
    {

         flt_Angle += (float)0.05;


         p_dx_Device->Clear(0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(72,61,139), 1.0f, 0);
         p_dx_Device->BeginScene();

         D3DXMATRIX m_Translation;
         D3DXMatrixTranslation(&m_Translation,-5,0,0);

         D3DXMATRIX m_World;
         p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_WORLD,&m_Translation );

         p_dx_Device->SetStreamSource(0, p_dx_VertexBuffer, 0, sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX));
         p_dx_Device->SetFVF(D3DFVF_XYZ|D3DFVF_NORMAL|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE);
         p_dx_Device->DrawPrimitive(D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 2);

         p_dx_Device->EndScene();
         p_dx_Device->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    }

    LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 FillVertices(HWND han_Window, LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device)
    {
         OURCUSTOMVERTEX cv_Vertices[6];
         LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 p_dx_VertexBuffer;

        cv_Vertices[0].x = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[0].y = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[0].z = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[0].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[0].normal.x = 0;
        cv_Vertices[0].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[0].normal.z = 1;

        cv_Vertices[1].x = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[1].y = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[1].z = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[1].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[1].normal.x = 1;
        cv_Vertices[1].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[1].normal.z = 1;

        cv_Vertices[2].x = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[2].y = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[2].z = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[2].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[2].normal.x = 0;
        cv_Vertices[2].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[2].normal.z = 1;

        cv_Vertices[3].x = -50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[3].y = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[3].z = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[3].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[3].normal.x = -1;
        cv_Vertices[3].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[3].normal.z = 1;
        
        cv_Vertices[4].x = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[4].y = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[4].z = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[4].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[4].normal.x = 0;
        cv_Vertices[4].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[4].normal.z = 1;

        cv_Vertices[5].x = 0.0f;
        cv_Vertices[5].y = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[5].z = 50.0f;
        cv_Vertices[5].color = 0xff3333FF;
        cv_Vertices[5].normal.x = 0;
        cv_Vertices[5].normal.y = 0;
        cv_Vertices[5].normal.z = 1;

         if (FAILED(p_dx_Device->CreateVertexBuffer(6*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX),
             0, D3DFVF_XYZ|D3DFVF_NORMAL|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &p_dx_VertexBuffer, NULL)))
         {
             MessageBox(han_Window,"Error while creating VertexBuffer","FillVertices()",MB_OK);
        }

         VOID* p_Vertices;
         if (FAILED(p_dx_VertexBuffer->Lock(0, 6*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX), (void**)&p_Vertices, 0)))
         {
             MessageBox(han_Window,"Error trying to lock","FillVertices()",MB_OK);
        }else{
             memcpy(p_Vertices, cv_Vertices, 6*sizeof(OURCUSTOMVERTEX));
             p_dx_VertexBuffer->Unlock();
        }

         return p_dx_VertexBuffer;
    }

    void SetUpCamera(LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_dx_Device)
    {
         D3DXVECTOR3 m_EyePos(0, -40, 100);
         D3DXVECTOR3 m_TargetPos(0, 50, 0);
         D3DXVECTOR3 m_UpVector(0, 1, 0);
         D3DXMATRIXA16 m_View;
         D3DXMatrixLookAtLH(&m_View, &m_EyePos, &m_TargetPos, &m_UpVector);
         p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_VIEW, &m_View);

         D3DXMATRIX m_Projection;
         D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH(&m_Projection, D3DX_PI/4, 500/500, 1, 200);
         p_dx_Device->SetTransform(D3DTS_PROJECTION, &m_Projection);
    }

    int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,HINSTANCE hPreviousInstance,LPSTR lpcmdline,int nCmdShow)
    {
         MSG msg_Message;

         HWND han_Window = NewWindow("DirectX C++ Tutorial",100,100,500,500);
         LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 p_Device = InitializeDevice(han_Window);
         LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 p_dx_VB = FillVertices(han_Window, p_Device);
         SetUpCamera(p_Device);

         while(int_AppRunning)
         {
             if(PeekMessage(&msg_Message,han_Window,0,0,PM_REMOVE))
             {
                 DispatchMessage(&msg_Message);
            }
             DrawScene(p_Device, p_dx_VB);
        }

         p_Device->Release();
         DestroyWindow(han_Window);

         return 0;
    }



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    Contents

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